By Mac小兔

1、bacic info

1.1 注意事项

  • 人名通常取最后大写字母,姓;书名取第一个大写字母
  • 生词变为首字母,动词还原为关系;
  • 文科讲对比,理科讲因果
  • 并列成分,只取其一;
  • 时间序列,抓住首尾;
  • 对比找反义,反义在宾语。
  • 文科句子中,when从句通常不重要

1.2 语法

  • 主谓宾: subject verb object. SVO
  • 主系表: subject is adj.

1.3 论证

  • 演绎推理deductive reasoning : 前提(premise)蕴含结论(conclusion)
  • 归纳推理inductive reasoning: 前提不蕴含结论
  • 常用方法:
    • 支持结论,或对结论或因果判断举例,甚至重复
    • 间接方式—否定它因,即支持现有原因。
    • 简介方式—肯定它因,即削弱现有原因。
    • 打断从前提到结论呢的推理过程—如果前提不存在,而结论中所说的事实存在,使得从前提到结论的推理过程断线。方法,否定前提。
  • 有效的论证通常还是演绎的方法

2 写作常用词

2.1 argument

2.1.1 论点

  • general point, generalization, main idea, thesis
  • assertion, claim, contention, idea, notion, suggestion, view
  • explanation, hypothesis, interpretation, mechamism, model, proposal, theory

2.1.2 论据

  • details, example, evidence,particular points, supporting ideas, specific, specify
  • reasons
  • data, discovery, experiment, fact, finding, observation, phenomenon

2.1.3 结论

  • as a result, consequently, hence, in general, in sum, then, therefore

2.1.4 单概念论点

  • 举例: for example,for instance, in the case of
  • 多项枚举listing或穷举exhaustion: some, other, however some,first, second, third, finally
  • 分类division,classification或定义: also, another, furthermore, in addition, moreover,even
  • 时间序列:after, afterward, at this point, during this stage, finally, in a few days, in the first phase, next, now, once, then, throughout, within minutes.

2.1.5 多概念论点(对比,因果,分层)


  • 首句提示词: same, share, similar
  • 逻辑关联词或信号词:also, by the same token, in like manner, in much the same way or manner, in the same vein, just like, similarly, likewise


  • 首句提示词:conflict, contrast, differ, different, distinguish, less than, more than

  • 逻辑关联词或信号词:actually, but, despite these difference, however, in contrast, in reality, instead of , just the opposite, nevertheless, nonetheless, on the contrary, on the one hand, on the other hand, rather, unlike, whereas, yet


  • 首句提示词:affect, bring about, cause, change, create, determine, generate, increase, lead to , make happen, produce, reduce,result in, set off, stimulate, trigger, block, inhibit, reduce, suppress
  • 逻辑关联词或信号词:as a result, because, consequently, due to , for this reason, hence, in response to, thanks to , therefore, thus

2.1.6 让步信号词

admittedly, albeit, although, certainly, did have, granted that, has, have, in spite of ,it is true that, may seem, might seem, no doubt, of course, there is some evidence that, there might be, this is not to deny , though, to be sure, true, undoubtedly, while